Microbiology

What is Microbiology



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Microbiology is the study of microorganisms. Microorganisms can be classified into two groups: unicellular and cell-cluster microscopic organisms. Unicellular, as you know, are single celled organisms. These organisms are microscopic and therefore can not be seen by the naked eye. It is here that the technology used by microbiologists come into play. A cell-cluster microscopic organisms are exactly what the name suggests: groups of microscopic organisms.

There are many different forms of Microbiology. Some of these include: protists, fungi, bacteria, and certain algae. Viruses are also one of the many things studied by microbiologists, though they are not technically classified as living organisms.

The term microbiology is a very broad a general term. There are many fields that come with microbiology, such as:

-virology: the study of biological viruses and virus-like agents.
-parasitology: the study of parasites, their hosts and the relationship between the two.
-mycology: the study of fungi.

Microbiology also consists of many subdivisions. These are:

-Oral microbiology-the study of microorganisms of the mouth.
-Food microbiology-the study of microorganisms resulting in food spoilage.
-Evolutionary microbiolgy-the study of the evolution of microbes.
-Microbial Physiology-the study of how microbial cell functions biochemically.
-Industrial microbiology-the use of microbes in industrial processes.
-Veterinary Microbiology-study of role in microbes in veterinary medicine.
-Microbial Genetics-the study of how genes are organized and regulated in microbes, with the relations of cellular functions.
-Aeromicrobiology-the study of airbourne microorganisms.
-Enviromental Microbiology-the study of the function and diversity of microbes in their natural enviroments.
-Pharmaceutical microbiology-the study of microorganisms causing pharmaceutical spoilage and contamination.
-Medical Microbiology-the study of the role of microbes in human illness.

Microbes were first discovered by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. Using only a single-lensed microscopic that he, himself had designed, Leeuwenhoek discovered what now is known as "bacterium." Besides Leeuwenhoek, many people helped with the discovery of Mirobiology, most done by one subdivision at a time. For example, Ferdinand Cohn, who studied algae along with other organisms, founded many bacteria, helping to contribute to the subdivision known as bacteriology. Cohn is also known as the first person to discover the taxonomic classification of bacteria. Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur are considered to be founders of medical microbiology. Pasteur worked on disproving spontaneous generation. By doing this, he supported microbiology's identity as a biological science. Koch is known for proving that specific diseases were caused by specific pathogenic microorganisms.

But perhaps the biggest influence on microbiology came from the contibutions made by Martinus Beijerinck and Sergei Winogradsky. Beijerinck alone discovered viruses and the development of enrichment culteres.Winogradsky was the first to discover chemolithotrophy. Both of these men greatly impacted the science that is now known as Microbiology.

Though much is known about microbiology, there are many chances for advances, and these chances are being taken regularly. Even with the discovery of microbes being made over three hundred years ago, humans have studied only one percent of all the micro species that inhabit Earth. With technology advances and the curiosity of scientists both growing at rapid speeds, microbiology will continue to expand until all the mysteries are solved.

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