Geology And Geophysics


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Natural disasters are one of the world's wonders - we are still continually studying these to see how we can improve evacuation plans and be able to predict every single natural disaster. Natural disasters are very annoying to some people, but that doesn't stop them from living a normal life. Sometimes we also have to think and care about the environment. Part of the reason that droughts are occurring here is that we have emitted too many gases which are depleting the ozone layer (causing global warming). Everyone thinks natural disasters are always bad, but sometimes they aren't. Take volcanoes for example - they create fertile land for farmers which they love. If they are passionate farmers, they will risk their lives just for the love of farming.

Volcanoes erupt when the tremors of the Earth's plates move deep in the earth and create friction. This heats the magma. The pressure then builds up to a certain point where the volcano can't take it anymore and it erupts. Volcanic eruptions can also 'come' with earthquakes, and can increase the devastation and damage caused.

Some volcanoes are on islands in the middle of the ocean, and can be triggered by underwater earthquakes. Underwater earthquakes can also cause Tsunamis. The literal meaning of 'Tsunami' is harbor wave and is a giant wave which comes crashing onto a beach.

A volcano can erupt in two main ways - a Plinian eruption causing pyroclastic flows of tephra or a Hawaiian eruption causing streaming lava. A Plinian eruption is where pyroclastic flows occur and volcanic material goes everywhere, filling the air with molten rock and ash. This means you have to keep safe until it has rained down. With a Hawaiian style eruption, the lava flows down burning everyone. After the eruption ends, any lava will dry up creating new fertile land, which is great for farming.

Volcanoes mostly occur on the Pacific Ring of Fire. This area surrounding the Pacific is lined with 452 volcanoes. The reason all the volcanoes erupt here is because of the plate borders which for some reason line up around the border of the Pacific.

Volcanoes can start just as a hole and as it erupts, it builds 'land' or earth around it. A volcano is active when it does this. Sometimes volcanoes can become dormant, meaning that they are 'sleeping' or not active at the moment, but are ready to become soon. An extinct volcano is a volcano which has finished with all its erupting and will not erupt for the rest of its time standing.

Volcanoes are deadly, but provide great farming land. They are great for farmers if they are willing to take the risk.

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