Understanding Dark Matter

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According to HPPH at, "Dark matter is a form of matter that does not emit light, absorb light, or scatter light. Its only interactions are gravitational"http://www.astro.ucla.edyu/~wright/glossary.html.

The exited H particle-paths due to mass diminution as the subject of, Sec. 5(1)1, Note 5(1)1b, and example 5(1)1,(of the site) may be regarded as dark matter that can produce gravity. "Because dark matter produces gravity, it can produce or enhance the lensing abilities of galaxies or clusters of galaxies in which it resides"[77], Q&A No.154, Note 5(1)2a. According to

"Dark matter generally refers to exotic non-baryonic matter (WIMPs) that interacts only weakly with ordinary matter. Whereas, no such matter has ever been directly observed in the laboratory, its existence has long been suspected. This form of matter also has no cosmology significant pressure". "WMAP data reveals that Universe contents include 4% atoms, the building blocks of stars and planets. Dark matter comprises 22% of the Universe. This matter, different from atoms, does not emit or absorb light. It has only detected indirectly by its gravity. 74% of the Universe composed of dark energy that acts as assort of an antigravity. This energy distinct from dark matter, is responsible for the present day acceleration of the universe expansion", part related to content of the Universe.

Therefore, the ratio of dark energy (related to single direction H particle-paths, Sec. 5(16)7a, Eq. 5(70)8a3 to the sum of dark matter and normal matter [related to counter-current reversible H particle-paths, Sec. 3(1)2, density] is approximately three fold, Remark 5(1)2a, at the present time). Noteworthy, CMB is the single direction H particle-paths moving at c speed individually; whereas, dark matter of configuration from viewpoint of this article is the counter-current H particle-paths at andconfigurations, Sec. 3(1)2, Fig. 3(4) a, b, moving randomly and individually, e.g., super-symmetric models such as neutralinos, Comment 5(1)2b.

 Please refer to Fig. 5(8) of Sec. 5(16)1b, part A, to have an idea in this regards. Therefore, we must seek for dark matter around the macroscopic mass-bodies H system, Remark 5(1)2b, contrary to the CMBR and dark energy, Sec. 5(15)2, that spread all over the Universe and the last two have bosonic H particle-paths nature (Sec. 3(1)2, Fig. 3(4)c, SM configuration). "Dark energy is known to be very homogeneous, not very dense and presumably does not interact strongly through any of the fundamental forced other than gravity"[263] nature of dark energy. Dark matter and dark energy have two common characteristic as following:

1- Their interactions are only gravitational

2- Significant portion of missing masses in the Universe.

"Galaxies show signs of being composed largely of a roughly spherical halo of dark matter with the visible matter concentrated in a disk at the center"  observational evidence.

Noteworthy, mass is converting steadily to gravitational field, Sec. 5(1)1, (i.e. potential energy) through expanding surfaces (or spheres); Sec. 5(4), during an irreversible process along with time's arrow and space expansion, Sec. 5(16)7a, i.e. path-length, Sec. 2(1)2, generation. Please refer also to Sec. 2(1), Note 2(1)3b; Sec. 5(15), for more information on the dark energy from viewpoint of H particle-paths hypothesis.

Note 5(1)2a - The dark matter has substructures in the form of halos within the galactic system. These halos by analogy to the stars and satellites in a galaxy orbiting the galactic disk. “Subhalos on orbits that pass through or near to a galactic disk perturb it gravitationally and deposit energy in it, gradually heating the disk and increasing its scale-high”. “Many of the satellites that are incorporated into a galactic dark halo do not actually merge with the central galaxy” [451] introduction.

Comment 5(1)2a. Until now, no successful description of dark matter on particles (such as neutrinos with its contribution, neutralinos, axions, etc.) is down. According to  part related to alternative explanation" A proposed alternative to physical dark matter particles has been to suppose that the observed in consistencies are due to incomplete understanding of gravitations". However, according to Abstract, "We present first results (dark matter detection) after successfully running the prototype detector for a period of about 15 months in the Grand Sasso underground laboratory we analyze the result in term of limits on WIMP-nucleon cross section".

Comment 5(1)2b – “Although other possibilities exist, many physicist think galactic matter is a cloud of supersymmetric particles gravitational bound to a galaxy”  the astronomy connection. "These weakly interacting, massive (1GeV – 1TeV) particles (WIMPs) arise independently from cosmological considerations in supersymmetric model as neutralinos – the lightest supersymmetric particles. Direct detection of neutralinos can occur in very low background experiments, where the elastic neutralinos scattering off target nuclei is exploited. HDMS (Heidelberg dark matter search) is a new Germanium experiment aiming to test the hypothesis that the dark halo of our Galaxy is mad of WIMPs" arXiv-hep-ph/0011233.

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