Geology And Geophysics

Top Ten Rarest Gems on Earth

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"Top Ten Rarest Gems on Earth"
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Most gems are relatively rare and this is what accounts for the monetary value of them.  However, some gems are more rare than others, to such an extreme that many people have never heard of some of them.  Here is an overview of the ten rarest gems in the world, their value and  some information on where they can be found.  


This is a mineral that can cost in excess of $3 million per carat.  It can be sourced in Guatemala and some areas of California.  Mexican jadeite is in artefacts but the source of the jadeite is unknown.

Red diamond

The rarest color of diamond is red.  One carat of red diamond can cost anything between $2-2.5 million.  The actual shade of red is a reddish purple.  The best known source of red diamonds is the Argyle Mine in Australia.  


This stone originates from Sri Lanka and is cyan in color.  A carat of this gem is valued at between $1.8-2 million.  Currently, only three cut faceted specimens exist.  Serendibite is a rather complex gemstone that consists of calcium, magnesium, boron, aluminium, oxygen and silicon.  

Blue garnet

The garnet is a gem that can be found in many colors, many of which have very little monetary value and are commonly found.  However, this is not the case for the rarest of the garnets, the blue garnet.  Although discovered in Madagascar, it can also be found in parts of Russia, Turkey and the US.  An approximate cost for one carat of blue garnet is $1.5 million.  


Although painite is still considered to be rare, this gem stone was once considered to be the rarest gem stone on earth.  Painite was discovered in the 1950’s in Myanmar. It is worth around $50,000 per carat.  Prior to 2005, only 25 of these crystals were known to exist.  


Originally found in Madagascar, this gem has also consequently been discovered in Sri Lanka.  The grandidierite transmits green, white and blue light and has an approximate value of $50,000 per 0.5 carat.  This gem is named after the French historian, Alfred Grandidier, who discovered it.  


This gem is named after the place in which it was discovered; Musgrave, Australia.  It is one of the most recently discovered gemstones.  Since its original discovery, it has also been found in Greenland, Madagascar and Sri Lanka.  One carat of this gem will cost about $35,000.  This silicate material mainly consists of aluminium, beryllium and magnesium.

Red beryl emerald

Primarily found in Utah, although also found in Mexico, this gemstone occurs on rhyolite.  As very few cut specimens exist, it can cost up to $10,000 per carat.  It develops on cracks in rhyolitic volcanic magma.  It crystallizes under low pressure and high temperatures. 

Black opal

The majority of opal comes from Australia and black opal is the rarest of the opals sourced there.  It can also be found in Mexico, Brazil and some areas of the US, including Idaho and Nevada.  A small number have also been found in Mali and Ethiopia.  The cost of a black opal is in the region of $2-2,500.  As the name suggests, this opal is black or very dark grey in color.  


This gem usually comes from Namibia and has often been mistaken for aquamarine.  One carat will usually cost about $2,000. The gem is named after the Russian minerologist, Pavel Jeremejev, who discovered it.  

More about this author: Elizabeth Nuttall

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