The element Samarium is a rare earth metal, and a member of the lanthanide family. The atomic number for samarium is 62. Its symbol is Sm. It was discovered in 1879 in Paris France by Lecoq de Boisbaudran. It was named after a Russian mine official, Colonel Samarski. It is mildly toxic if ingested and known to stimulate metabolism.
The lanthanides are soft silvery metals, whose name means hidden'. They are very much alike and hard to distinguish from each other. They are members of the rare earth metal group, but many of them are not rare at all. Cerium is more common on earth than Copper. The least common lanthanide is Thulium and it is more common than silver. The lanthanides were discovered in the first half of the Twentieth Century.
The lanthanides have strong refractory effects and are thus used in light equipment and in lenses. They are also useful in lasers, CDs, and as colorants. Their emissions make the color in color television. They also have strong magnetic qualities and can run miniature motors. In this usage the lanthanides have become very common in technology. You also find lanthanides in electron microscopes and superconductors. Samarium is used to make the carbon lights that are in use in the motion picture industry, and are therefore responsible for the movies we see. They also make up the flint for cigarette lighters.
Samarium is reasonably stable in air, ignites at 150C. There are three modifications of the samarium crystal, that transform at higher temperatures of 734 Celsius and 922C. Samarium and the other rare earth metals are used in carbon arc lighting for the motion picture industry. The samarium oxide is used in optical glass to up sort of infrared light. It's used as a magnet small electric motors Walkman and sensors combined with cobalt it creates a permanent magnet material with the highest resistance to de-magnetization of any known material. It is a catalyst for the dehydration and re-hydrogen nation of teeth and all. Samarium acts as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactions. Samarium is a solid at room temperature. It is obtained from monozite sand, which contains almost three percent samarium.
Samarium is in use as a homeopathic remedy. The keynote for its constitutional prescription is heaviness, as in a sensation of carrying the weight of the world on one's shoulders. Samarium is one of the main remedies used to treat migraine headaches. It is also useful for eye problems such as glaucoma, and kidney problems and arthritis.