Psychology

Psychoanalytical Development



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Sigmund Freud studied human behavior by analyzing the structure of the mind, psychoanalysis. He believed that personality structure was made up to three parts: Id: Everything that is inherited. The purpose of id is to insist on satisfaction of innate needs (hunger, physical comfort and emotional desires) Ego: Emerges form the id, this change takes place as the child interacts with people in his life pace and discovers that he cannot always have his way.

Purpose of ego is to help the individual relate to the world, he controls instincts of id by deciding which demands will be met and determining the appropriate time and circumstance for such action. The ego stores perceptions and memory traces to be used in future decision making. Superego: Is the internalization of what others have taught the person is right and wrong. Is based on personal experience, individuals may vary greatly in their concepts of what should be forbidden (conscience) and what should be desired (ego-ideal). Basic task in life is to coordinate the demands of id, ego and superego

Anxiety: When self perceives that is in danger, anxiety results, may relate to some real treat (reality anxiety), intense feeling of powerlessness (neurotic anxiety) or a feeling of guilt (moral anxiety). If anxiety is not constructively relieved, the individual may become immobile. Adjustments to Anxiety: For overcoming feelings of helplessness is through identification with a person who posses desired power and/or accomplishments. The individual hopes to increase his own status and desirability. Reliving anxiety depends partly on the actual competence.

If individual cannot face it it's pushed to the unconscious level, and reality is distorted. Distorted reactions are called defense mechanisms such as repression (unconsciously refusing to remember objectionable experiences, impulses, or ideas), regression (Going back to a behavior of a previous stage), rationalization (Making up excuses, refusing to recognize unfulfilled desires), undoing (Believing one can nullify past guilt-evoking actions), projection (Accusing others of weakness one possesses), and reaction-formation (Doing the opposite of what one feel to avoid guilt feeling).

Stages of development: Freud believed the child's experiences during the first five years of life were crucial to later adjustment. He divided into three stages: Oral Stage: Occurs during the first year. The child's major avenue for pleasure at this time is his mouth. Problems if neglected: alcoholism, overeating or nail biting Anal Stage: Runs through the second and third years. The child experiences great satisfaction from learning to control elimination.

This pleasure comes from encouragement and praise he receives from caregivers. Problems if neglected: stinginess and over concern for order, or messiness and compulsive excesses Phallic stage: transpires during the fourth and fifth years. Pleasure centers on the genitals. At first, both boys and girls relate very closely with the mother. At about age five, most boys will shift identification to the father. Problems if neglected: extreme selfishness, bragging and pompousness.

If the child has adequate and appropriate satisfaction during each stage, his emotional developments is likely to be healthy. If he is neglected, certain lifelong problems may occur, but many researches have failed to support these observations. After stages there's latency until adolescence, during this time many of the psychological conflicts of the oral, anal and phallic stage are suppressed from conscious memory.

Breger (1981) describes Freud's psychoanalytic theory as an unfinished journey. He pointed that since large numbers of Freud's ideas were both time-and culture-bound. Freud's contributions were unquestionably significant, but current cross cultural research is needed to test and revise his theories.

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