How Gravity actually Works

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"How Gravity actually Works"
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For three hundred years the theory of gravity has been dominated by the names of Einstein, Newton and Le Sage. Whereas Einstein and Newton restricted themselves to developing mathematical descriptions of the movement of free bodies moving in a gravitational fields, Le Sage actually attempted to describe the very cause of gravity.

Three hundred years ago Le Sage claimed the effects of gravitation to be the result of interactions of matter, with packets of energy, now called gravitons. Le Sage claimed the graviton's collisions with matter caused the movement attributed to gravity.

There is a defect in the theory that gravity is caused by graviton packets. The general consensus is that gravitational propagation through space is much greater than the speed of light. Light takes about 500 seconds to reach us from the sun. Our orbit around the sun is based on the true position of the sun, not where it was 8 minutes ago. The stability of our orbit around the sun indicates that the earth responds to the true position of the sun and not where it was eight minutes ago.

If the propagation of gravity is instantaneous, then the graviton packet theory is not feasible. The packets would be limited in velocity as are photons. (Light Packets.) In January of 2003 there was a report that the speed of gravitational propagation was close to that of light. The data was later disputed by a large number of well qualified scientist.

Most scientist involved in these debates admit that in the three hundred years since Le Sage, there are still fundamental questions about gravitation that have not been answered. One would be its true propagation speed, and more basic, what is the real cause of gravity.

Einstein says the fabric of space is distorted by the existence of a large mass nearby. His work helps us to us to calculate the trajectory of an object moving through this imaginary field, it also helps us to visualize a gravitational field, but he fails to define what this fabric of space is, and just how the space becomes distorted. (Are we back to packets again?)

What I propose is a controversial solution to this problem.
An alternate, and non-packet driven explanation of the very nature of gravitation. A working model in which the parts interact with each other, and produce the effects of gravity, but are not limited gravitons or the speed of light.


Over the years I've presented this theory to a select number of government and weapons system workers. Most were engineers and had state of the art abilities in both mathematics and physics. Some tried, but couldn't disprove the fundamentals of the theory, but most said they just didn't want to believe it. They said it disturbed them. (This was a literal statement made by some.)

The basic premise that troubled most people was this. We assume that in a Newtonian world (Speeds nowhere near the speed of light.) that our units of measurement are forever constant. However I can conceive of a world where the units of measure are forever expanding. I can also conceive of a world where the units of measure are forever contracting. Did I mention that matter, energy, space and time are also contracting or expanding. Let's look at the world that contracts. You'll find embedded in that world that gravitation is a necessary by product of the contraction of matter.

This contraction is universal in nature. It includes galaxies, solar systems, objects on earth, people, yardsticks, clocks, atoms and particles that make up atoms.

To continue we need to define several words.

The "static observer" is you looking at the system from the outside but not shrinking. You can observe the people inside this system as they and their world shrink. Always remember the people inside the system are not aware of the contraction of the system, nor are they aware of you.

"Apparent time" or distance is what you observe happening inside the contracting system. If you say apparent time, it refers to time inside the system. Your time is "true time".

"Real time and distance" are the stable time and distance units you use as a static observer. (not subject to change.)

FIRST EXAMPLE: DROPPING THE MARBLE. (As seen from inside the system.)

A person stands in a window inside a building. He holds a marble in his hand. The marble is 16 feet above ground. He holds the marble in his hand and releases it. The marble appears to accelerate toward the surface below. Some unseen force has pulled the marble toward the surface. It took less than a second before the marble rests on the ground. Let's look at the same event through the eyes of a static observer. (One who is not shrinking.)

EXAMPLE: DROPPING THE MARBLE. (As seen by the Static Observer.)

The static observer sees a man standing on a sphere with a radius of about 4000 miles. Because the sphere is shrinking, the surface of the Earth, the building he is in, himself and the marble all moving toward the center of the earth at about 7 miles per second. (.00175 * 4000= 7 mps )

During the second it takes for the marble to impact the ground, the radius of the earth decreases and the velocity of the surface decreases by 32 feet per second.

When the man released the marble, it continued at the speed of 7 miles per second toward the center of the earth. You, as the static observer, see the man and the surface of the earth has decelerated 32 feet per second. The marble maintained the velocity it had when released. The man on the surface is the one who's changing velocity, not the marble. (Note that there was no need for gravitons or curvature of space.)

SECOND EXAMPLE: OBSERVING ESCAPE VELOCITY. (From a viewpoint inside the system.)

The man inside the system carefully aims the cannon vertically. This is a special canon that will discharge the cannon ball at 7 miles per second.

This is the velocity needed to escape the gravitational field of the earth. He fires the cannon and watches as the cannon ball recedes from him. The velocity of the climb will become slower and slower as it climbs the gravitational slope away from the earth, but he knows it will never return to earth.

ESCAPE VELOCITY: (From the viewpoint of the Static Observer.)

The man inside the system fires the cannon. The first thing the Static
Observer will note is the original velocity of the cannon ball toward the center of the earth is canceled. The cannon ball now has zero velocity toward the center of the earth. (The distance between the cannon ball and the center of the earth does not change.)

From the viewpoint of the static observer, the canon ball and the center of the earth does not change. The earth becomes smaller, and the man inside the system thinks the canon ball is receding from him, when in reality the observer is receding from the canon ball . To the static observer the cannon ball maintains the same distance from the center of the earth. The earth finally becomes just a speck. The little man is the one that moved. The cannon ball was stationary in space even if it did decrease in size.

There are many things that are obvious to the static observer that are not observable to the observer inside the system. One is that as the unit of distance is decreasing, the unit of time is also decreasing. The closer the unit of time comes to zero, the closer the apparent time approaches infinity.

Expansion will create the effects of gravity as will contraction. I chose contraction because the surfaces of the atoms would be receding from each other and retain their identity, but a large group of atoms (a large mass) would all move toward the common center and be held to the surface by deceleration. Universal Contraction may be necessary for matter to survive.

The unit of time becomes interesting. As the universe get smaller, the unit of time (apparent time) becomes smaller. The static observer would see the hands on the clock spin faster and faster as the unit of time becomes smaller and smaller.

There will be a time that a second of real time can encompass a thousand years of apparent time, and at some point that same second will encompass a million years of apparent time. How many times can you divide a number greater than zero by two? Like the integral of a function that approaches but never reaches its limit.

Perhaps the integral limit of that time function is the wall between our world and that of the atom.

I think were at the same stage as the man who said, "What would happen if we replaced the Earth as the center of the solar system, and replaced it with the Sun?

What would happen if we slipping out of the box and said, "What if all matter is either contracting or expanding." I think it would open up new worlds to explore.

Perhaps you should explore the "Universal Expanding World."

Perhaps one of these worlds is real.

More about this author: Ted Little

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