Chemistry

Chemistry the Basics



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The following article, in a sense, goes more basic than the topic title; but, somehow,it seems to fit here.

Introduction to the Oscillator/Substance Model of Everything.

Summary: This article presents a view of existence as being within a substance, at its triple point, consisting of separable oscillators. As such it gives new definitions of mass, energy, force, gravitation.... Included are possible explanations of "The Big Bang," Black Holes, Neutron Stars.... In terms of this model there is also a warning of possible danger from the Hadron Collider which is due to go into operation in the Summer of 2008.

The "Oscillator/Substance Model of Everything" is a second-generation model developed from the Motion in a Matrix Model.* The key insights of that model were that the speed of light being a limiting velocity of information transfer implied a necessary medium for interaction and that the interconvertibily of mass and energy implied that they were different aspects of the same thing. The original thought was that mass coordinated to point-centered motion and energy to motion along a line. While this seems to be in general quite close to the facts, it was realized that modifying the ideas to mass being motion confined within a surface and energy being a less specific term covering all types of motion, with Kinetic Energy being the type that would be dissipated along a line would be a more usable view.

If, instead of postulating a fixed matrix of dots as a basis for a model, it be assumed that there be a basic substance which will remain at, or return to its triple-point, the problem of whether the model is dealing with a solid, liquid or gas disappears. At the triple point the substance can act as any of the three depending upon slight variations in conditions. We may even postulate that the triple-point temperature is approximately the temperature of outer space, about three degrees Kelvin.

Postulating a substance basis for everything, allows us to define a number of things which are otherwise undefined or have "circular definitions." Mass becomes the balance between the motion content of the substance within a particular surface and the remainder of the substance. Kinetic Energy is the motion dissipated into the "Bulk" of the substance when a portion of the substance within a surface changes position. Light and other electromagnetic radiation is motion within the substance. The law of forces, "For every force there is an equal and opposite force," falls into place as a statement of the fact that if there is a pressure change within one part of the substance, there will be compensatory changes within the rest of the substance. It has been long known that pressure is a force. We simply change the statement slightly to, "All true forces are pressures."

Gravitation loses its place as a force-a status which it actually never should have had. It becomes a description of the difference in pressure of the amount of the substance between two entities and rest of the substance, including that part of the substance included within the entities. Electro-magnetism is the observed result of pressure disturbances within the substance from actions and interactions between electrons and protons,

Electrons and protons are known to be the basic units from which all of our chemical substances are derived. That is, with the possible exception of the "short-lived" particles produced in high-energy, particle-physics experiments. In our Universe, protons and electrons occur as the decay product of neutrons. Electrons and anti-electrons also appear in "Pair-production," and disappear in "Annihilation."

Putting the above pieces together with the characteristics of oscillators. we may postulate that 'Pair-production" and "Annihilation." are opposite processes. A spherical cavity oscillator can be considered to consist of counter-rotating halves, which, if subjected to enough "motion disturbance," can split into two mirror-image vortex oscillators having opposite spin orientations. If these two halves were to re-encounter on a proper axis they could recombine to the original oscillator with loss of kinetic energy. That is, postulating a basic unit of our substance as an oscillator that can be split into vortex oscillators having opposite spins, neatly accounts for "Pair-production" and "Annihilation."

As to electrons, protons and neutrons, we can account for these at the same time as we account for the "Big Bang" and the "Expanding Universe."

Neutrons fit the characteristics of a substance distorted by a shock wave such that the "front half of the unit met the back-half coming forward." This distorted unit splits into an electron and a proton. The speed of light in the substance-if light is a typical information carrier-is the average velocity in any given direction in any given instant. Therefore, it will be the average expansion velocity of the expansion phase of an oscillator, and will also be the average rotational velocity measured at the outer edge of the expansion (or contraction) phase of an oscillator. As such it will be the average velocity felt by our basic oscillators.

We may postulate that motion at above this velocity will travel as a shock wave and since "c," the speed of light, is an average, the initial velocity at the start of the expansion phase has to be greater than "c." if we consider acceleration and deceleration to be linear. we can estimate the initial shock wave from any oscillator as having a velocity of "2c" which fits fairly well with the comparative "masses" of the electron and proton. with the proton half laking the entire distortion from a "2c" shock wave slamming into our substance acting as a "solid."

What this all adds up to is that some oscillator is operating at ultra-low frequency, very high power, and we are riding in the "Creativity out of Chaos" behind that shock wave which converted may substance units into neutrons which disintegrate into electrons and protons. The electrons and protons, vortex particles of opposite spin orientations, but very different sizes and shapes, can not stably recombine but can associate in a multitude of ways, creating everything that we know in our Universe. Presumably, or the other side of the Parent Oscillator, is an "Anti-Universe, coping in its own way with the same "Creativity out of Chaos" attempt to stabilize. At some point the shock wave will expend itself, and there will be a contracting Universe-Anti-universe set which will eventually collapse through the parent-oscillator to start the process all over again.

Our discussion above leads to the conclusion that our basic oscillators possess the ability to coordinate vast amounts of energy. Taking this into account gives a possible explanation for "Black Holes" in the centers of Galaxies. In the Creativity of Chaos behind the shock wave, some units fall into coordination with an oscillator at their exact center, and begin to move with its frequencies. Considering the characteristics of oscillators, a vortex oscillator such as a proton or electron, if passed intact through a full-cavity oscillator would have its "sense" reversed. That is, an electron would become an anti-electron, a proton an anti-proton. Since, tossed out the other side of the oscillator these could unite with "untransformed" units, oscillators operating in this way would be reducing electrons and protons back to unit-oscillators. This. however, comes at a cost. Protons, formed at distortion of smaller oscillators, would be combined into "proton-parent" oscillators, which could presumably be, in turn, distorted by shock waves into Super-neutrons, which would collapse into an anti-proton ("Super-electron") and a "Super-proton" and so on and on and on...

When a Black Hole Oscillator has done its "trash converter" work in a volume, what would appear to a human observer would be a complete blank spot in space devoid of anything which we would consider "Matter."

One other factor in our Existence that we have not mentioned is the neutrino-anti-neutrino combination. It seems logical to guess that these are a pair-product just as electrons and anti-electrons are, and that their "parent-oscillator" is a more basic unit to our substance oscillator(s). This would be in analogy to atoms and molecules in chemical substances. These could, in turn be composed of even smaller oscillators, ad infinitum.

We consider all "matter" to be made up of protons and electrons, which combine to form atoms, atoms to form molecules, molecules to form organisms.... In this model we would not consider that neutrons would exist within atoms other than in "potential" or "evanescent" state, and consider that neutron stars and quasars would perhaps model as hugely over-sized atoms. As such they would function as "isotope factories." Isotopic distributions within galaxies may be a result of differences between the "neutron" stars active within them in the past. It should be possible to find spectra of elements including possibly trans-Uranium elements or even unknown "Trans-Uraniums" in the radiation from quasars and neutrons stars. Because of the expectation of high energy electron "orbitals" closely spaced, it can be expected that these entities will have distinctive radio-frequency "signatures.

This model, if valid, casts considerable doubt on both the validity of the assumptions behind some of the publicized experiments that are intended for the "Hadron Collider" under Switzerland and France that is due to go into operation this Summer (2008), and on its safety. If the simple definition of mass which arises in this model be valid, then the idea that something known as the Higgs Boson is responsible for mass becomes a total misconception. The idea that colliding protons with protons would duplicate the conditions before the "Big Bang" is inconsistent to this model in several ways. One is that by this model, protons would come into existence as a result of the decay of neutrons. As neutrons have a significant half-life, protons would not exist until after the start of the shock wave. As to Lead Ions, these would appear much later. However, collisions at relative velocities of close to "2c" could certainly have the potential to distort oscillators cause neutron formation and, perhaps, additional esoteric, short-lived, alternate forms of matter. Almost surely, Hydrogen would appear within the collider tube. A much more dangerous implication of this model is the idea of Black Hole formation by coordination of a circular spinning entity with an oscillator in its center. The Collider apparently has as least a couple of perfect circle dimensions which have resonance frequencies. There is a high probability that these circles will act as cavity oscillators. If one of these oscillators did come into active coordination with a central oscillator the result would be the same as is postulated for galaxies. Although on a miniature scale to a galaxy, a Black Hole interaction the size of the Collider could have results ranging from, hopefully, merely annoying "unexplained energy anomalies," to a new volcano where the Collider had been, to a coordinated vibration with the resonance frequencies of the Earth to create a new asteroid field between Venus and Mars. Although a "Black Hole Oscillator" would probably "eat" only the material within the circumference of the Collider, the conversion of that amount of matter to anti-matter would make the most powerful atomic bomb appear a mere firecracker.

The scientists working on the project apparently admit that they have no idea what will happen. I hope they remember that, in retrospect, the physicists working on the Manhattan Project realized that it was by the merest of good luck that they did not blow themselves, and the entire Chicago area off the face of the Earth.
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* See "Motion in a Matrix...." on www.helium.com. Several other articles by this writer, which are posted on that web site also bear upon ideas related to this model.

AUTHOR'S POST-SCRIPT: After reading through the above article, the writer has realized that he has not included some things which usually occur in a modern, scientific article. There are no mathematical formulations that might not be comprehensible to everyone, nor any mention of one or more of the modern, accepted theoretical ideas such as Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, String Theory. Rather than break into the body of the above to correct these apparent flaws, there is being appended this addendum.

It has been shown in other papers that by equating the value of Planck's Constant,"h." to the dimensions of its definition, evaluating this at the speed of light, "c," one can obtain a definition of a family of dual-cavity and/or vortex oscillators defined, in set notation, by {m x r = h/c}. This set has a central, symmetric, spherical-or ring-oscillator defined by m = r = (h/c)^0.5., where "m" is a mass and "r" is the radius of a circle or a sphere. The value of m in cgs units is about 7.4 x 10^-19 g. and the value of r is about

7.4 x 10^-19 cm. If one goes a step farther and writes, "m = h/c^2" , one finds an associated minimal mass of about

7.5 x 10^-58 g. which may be the mass of a "neutrino parent." Possibly the smallest mass of significance in our Universe.

When the accepted mass of the electron is inserted into the oscillator-family-set equation, the radius is found to be the Compton Wave Length used in Quantum Mechanics. Inspection of the mathematical definitions shows that the two are mathematically identical although their different derivations do not show this clearly.

Quantum Mechanics is said to fail at about 10^-18 cm., and String Theory gets lost into its ten dimensions at about the same value. That is the value of the diameter of our average oscillator, a value through which all the oscillators may well invert. It is interesting that it is the point of failure of two of the widely used theoretical models. If our speculations are correct the failure of both is perhaps that their mathematics only accounts for half or less of "Reality."

In so far as the writer knows, no-one has correlated the Space-Time approach with "Q.M." Each seems to have been in its own niche. The mathematics of both, in so far as they go, would seem to be somewhat compatible with this model. Space-Time modeling seems to work quite well at the macro level despite the fact that Relativity probably only would strictly apply to communication theory, and concepts of what occupies space and what time actually is, appear to be in error. String Theory seems to depend, ultimately, on the true-but rather useless in the thinking of most people-fact that the path traced by a dot moving in random fashion will follow a path which one can consider as having always being there. The 10 dimensions may arise because one can use nine dimensions of space, and one of motion. to define the actions of a dot, if one wishes to do so.

If the foregoing seems not too well explained and a bit abstruse, then perhaps the writer has reached the goal of writing a "modern scientific paper." Most modern, scientific papers seem to be written in such a way that only the author and the closest associates have any idea what is going on. If they do.

On a more serious note, it can be observed that if this model be valid, it could have been put together close to a century ago, had the ideas advanced by Planck been followed up rather than those of Einstein. This writer did not realize this at the start of the path that led to this write-up. However, the initial impetus was the realization that there was an "Overlooked Obvious" in Einstein's Special Relativity, the fact that the transform equations could be generalized to fit into communication theory if one realized that "c," the speed of light was simply the limiting velocity of an information carrier wave. The theory was valid for situations wherein communication was possible or necessary; but, possibly of no pertinence in other situations.

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