# Physical Science - Other

How spaceships will be built in the future
By: Julian S Wright
This is a simple conjecture of a possible future method for cutting down the cost of building a spaceship. It was an idea I mooted in a book I wrote a number of years ago. I never published the book, although it had some good...
 What initiates cell division? By: Blaise Pascal Cell division is the creation of new ‘daughter’ cells from a single ‘parent’ cell. At some point in their life cycle, all cells will divide and the new cells could be exactly the same as the original cell or share half of the...
How to calculate linear force from torque
By: Mark G Weller
There is a simple formula to calculate the linear force from an applied torque but you first need to understand the concepts behind it. To begin with, it is necessary to know the definitions of the factors involved. Force or “Linear Force” is defined...
By: Stephen Bredenkamp
A gallon is three dimensional, a measure of volume, similar to cubic feet. In fact, 1 US gallon is equal to 231 cubic inches, or 0.133680 cubic feet. Alternatively 1 cubic foot equals 7.48 gallons. This article refers to the US Customary gallon:...
How aluminum is produced industrially
By: Charles Perera
Aluminium is highly reactive and does not occur in the free state. However, it is widely distributed and it is the third metal in abundance on earth after Oxygen and Silicon. Aluminium exists primarily as Alumino-Silicates (i.e. as Felspar, NaAlSi3O8, or KAlSi3O8, or CaAl2Si2O8)...
By: Dr. Bryan Katz
All nuclear reactors in existence today are powered by the heat generated by the fission of uranium atoms. Here is the concept in a nutshell: Fuel rods containing enriched uranium (U-235) give off tremendous amounts of heat as the uranium atoms are bombarded with neutrons...
By: Derotha Ann Reynolds
How a nuclear energy plant works isn’t all that different from how a coal plant works. Both technology types heat water, which turns into steam, which provides the power to turn a turbine generator, which produces electricity. According to the website, "How Stuff Works...
By: Blaise Pascal
Though they may not always be seen, heat exchangers are present in a variety of different devices, machines, appliances, industrial processes, power plants, engines or vehicles. They are present primarily to salvage heat from wasted gases and increase energy efficiency. Though many different types of...
Astro physics - Stellar Distances: Light years, parsecs and AU's explained
By: Jose Juan Gutierrez
Light years, parsecs and AU's explained Measuring distances is very important to obtain the properties of an object, for instance, the width of a street, the height of a building, or the area of a lake. To measure distances on earth, man makes use of...
By: Sarah Cagle
Chemical and nuclear reactions can be described in similar ways using mathematics. In fact, both of these types of reactions are commonly expressed by equations. There is, however, unique properties in the nature of each of these reactions. The main difference between these phenomena is...

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