Defining an acid
By: Ernest Capraro
Definitions of acids are abundant, and no single definition is used universally. Acids are typically defined either by the use of a relative scale, or by their chemical behavior. The most familiar way for most people to recognize an acid is to see how it...
Defining a base
By: Ernest Capraro
Defining bases and skinning cats have one thing in common – they each can be done in more than one way. Bases are typically defined either by the use of a relative scale, or by their chemical behavior. The most familiar way for most people...
By: Shelly Barclay
The Moon is obviously a very familiar object to us Earthlings. It has been orbiting the Earth for longer than humans have inhabited the planet (much, much longer, if scientists are correct). Not only is the Moon familiar, but it is also responsible for another...
The Solar System: A general overview
By: D. Vogt
The solar system consists of our planet Earth as well as all of the other objects which orbit around our Sun - the other terrestrial or "rocky" planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars), the asteroid belt, the gas giants and ice giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and...
Understanding Dalton's atomic theory
By: D. Vogt
Early 19th-century chemist John Dalton (1766-1844) made several important if partially obsolete contributions to the essential early development of atomic theory. According to his theory, all elements are made up of fundamentally different atoms, with measurably different weights; the atoms of different elements can combine...
What was Rutherford's gold foil experiment?
By: D. Vogt
Perhaps surprisingly, the Rutherford gold foil experiment was not actually performed by Nobel laureate chemist Ernest Rutherford, though it was carried out under his supervision, by his junior colleagues at the University of Manchester, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. The experiment directed a beam of...
What makes helium an inert gas
By: D. Vogt
Helium, along with neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon, is an inert gas (also known as a noble gas) - that is, it does not normally react with other elements to form chemical compounds. Unlike most of these, however, helium is, at least for us...
Explaining the difference between a mixture and a solution
By: D. Vogt
In chemistry, the terms "mixture" and "solution" actually refer to two quite different types of samples. According to Charles Ophardt, a mixture is a combination of substances (at least two, but often more) which have not reacted chemically and may or may not possess a...
By: D. Vogt
Speed and velocity are often used interchangeably in common conversation. However, in the physical sciences (and especially in physics), the two terms actually refer to specific and different forms of measurement. In particular, speed refers to the rate that an object changes its position over...
By: D. Vogt
Mass and weight are usually used interchangeably in common conservation; in the natural sciences, however (and especially in physics), these refer to two specific, different properties of matter. In essence, mass is an estimate of the amount of matter in an object, and is equivalent...

 

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