By: Helena Whyte
Water is a polar molecule. The force of attraction between positively charged hydrogen atoms on one water molecule and the negatively charged oxygen atom on another water molecule results in intermolecular forces. The intermolecular force is called a hydrogen bond. Other molecular forces in water...
By: Anthony Megna
The outer solar system is cold yet majestic. It is forbidding yet inviting. We used to think it ended with the planet Pluto, now Pluto supposedly isn't a planet anymore. My, how things have changed, not only with our solar system, but the outer solar...
Theory for a lunar base
By: The Unknown Writer
As the world watched, Neil Armstrong stepped off the lunar lander and into history. With both feet firmly planted on the lunar surface, he uttered (and botched) his famous line, “That's one small step for {a} man, one giant leap for mankind.” Six...
By: Virginia Gaces
Quality assurance encompasses four stages of laboratory analyses: patient identification, patient and sample preparation, testing or assaying and reporting or recording of results. Quality control specifically used in the third stage of quality assurance testing, is a valuable tool in the proper performance of laboratory...
By: Virginia Gaces
To ensure proper measurement of large volumes in the laboratory, volumetric apparatus should be calibrated regularly. Two of the most common apparatus calibrated are volumetric flasks and serological pipettes. This is a simple, manual procedure on how to calibrate volumetric apparatus: Volumetric flask: Weigh the...
Understanding density and why objects float on water
By: Jim Kerrigan
Fresh water weighs 62 pounds a cubic foot. This is the central reason that things float. Any three dimensional object will have volume. The thinner the walls of the object and the more empty or hollow it is, the lighter it is and the better...
By: Betty Carew
Ice floats since it goes to the very opposite of thermodynamics. The belief of solids sinking to the bottom is the norm but ice doesn’t do that even though it appears to be a solid. Instead ice floats on top of the water instead...
How to perform a titration
By: Mishra Planeswalker
Performing a titration is one of the most essential processes that is performed in laboratories by modern chemists. Simply put, a titration is a very controlled reaction where the presence of one reagent is limited meticulously. When performed correctly, a titration will allow a chemist...
Determining the reactivity of alkaline earth metals
By: Alison Bowler
The Alkaline Earth metals form Group 2 of the Periodic table. Group 2 is the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) preferred nomenclature but other versions of the table may use 2A or IIA. The seven elements forming the alkaline earth metal group...
Why and how absolute zero is -273.15 Celsius
By: Armanpreet Pannu
Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature in this universe. You can not get lower than absolute zero which is -273.15 Celsius or 0 Kelvin. To understand why this is you first need to know how temperature works. Temperature is just the movement of...

 

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