What are open star clusters
By: Colleen Mart
To understand what an open star cluster is, it is essential for a person to understand the distinction between constellations of stars, clusters of galaxies, globular clusters of stars and open clusters of stars. A brief description of constellations, galaxy clusters and globular clusters will...
Atomic physics: Quarks and anti-quarks
By: Dominic Clacy
Part of the Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quarks are considered a fundamental constituent of matter. When Quarks are combined one forms heavier particles called Hadrons, examples of which are the Proton and Neutron. In total the Standard Model contains six Quarks grouped into...
By: Mark Waybill
Is time travel possible? The answer depends on what exactly you are referring to by 'time travel." It appears at first sight to be a simple phenomenon, going backwards and forwards in time, as if time were an elevator and we pushed the buttons...
By: Tarek Musslimani
It is interesting that sodium metal is toxic to human tissue, while sodium ions are not only unharmful to humans but also are essential for the normal functioning of the human cells. This difference between sodium metal and sodium ions is due to the extreme...
What is the Oort cloud
By: Mark Waybill
First, it must be stated that the Oort Cloud has not been proven beyond a doubt to exist, but is considered very likely to exist by many astronomers, which would explain a lot of observations made by astronomers on the nature of comets, and their...
By: Tarek Musslimani
Potassium is an interesting metal like sodium. Both sodium and potassium are toxic to humans in the metallic form. However, both are essential for homeostasis in the ionic form. Potassium ions are as important as sodium ions in maintaining the resting electric potential across the...
How to make hydrochloric acid
By: Glen Brizius
Hydrochloric acid, or HCl in chemists shorthand, is commonly known as muriatic acid, which lends clues to its most ready method of production for the practicing lab-scale chemist. Muriatic is an old term, meaning concerning brine (sodium chloride). Muriatic acid is, surprisingly, commercially available...
By: Tarek Musslimani
Lithium ions differ from sodium and potassium ions in that they do not have an apparent physiological role in the body. Lithium is used however in the pharmaceutical industry to treat bipolar disorder. An example of such a drug is lithium carbonate or Li2CO3. Lithium...
By: Dominic Clacy
The Standard Model describes the universe in terms of six Quarks, six Leptons and interacting force carriers called Bosons. The Photon, Gluon and the Z and W Bosons mediate the Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces respectively. The theory does not contain a Gauge description of...
By: Tarek Musslimani
Magnesium is similar to sodium and potassium in toxicity towards human tissue in that the pure metal is toxic to cells, while the ions are not only unharmful but also function as cofactor for several key enzymes in the body. This behaviour of magnesium is...

 

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