An introduction to chromosomes, genes and DNA
By: Richard Pearman
Whether in school biology class, a discussion of medical problems, a police investigation, a protest against GMO foods or science fiction, everybody has heard of chromosomes, genes and DNA. Understanding what they are is another matter. A lot of people get confused about this and...
Why do people blink when they sneeze?
By: Bonnie-Jean Rohner
The sneeze, an automatic response to many stimuli, has engendered numerous myths and fairy tales. Among these is that if you sneeze with your eyes open, your eyes will pop out of your head. As silly as this might sound to some, it is due...
Causes of endophthalmitis
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Endophthalmitis is an inflammatory condition of the eye, specifically the intraocular cavities - inside the eye is the aqueous humor between the cornea and lens, and the vitreous humor between the lens and retina. The inflammation can be either infectious or non-infectious, though the most...
Blindness and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)
By: Shirley Lendway
Often people know that high blood pressure can cause a stroke or heart attack, but fewer realize that high blood pressure can be a major contributor to vision loss. High blood pressure can damage the veins in the eye.Two conditions Two conditions caused in...
Conditions comprising WHIM syndrome
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
WHIM syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disorder that affects the immune system. The condition is named from the acronym formed by four conditions: warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections (or immunodeficiency) and myelokathexis. The first symptoms of the disorder usually present as recurring infections in early...
How vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) antagonists treat macular degeneration
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Macular degeneration is a form of age-related blindness that develops over time. One cause of the blindness is neovascularization (i.e. new blood vessel growth) of the eye. In 1997, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was found to be over-expressed in patients with wet macular...
Brain structures that play a role in the fear response
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The fear response is a complex cascade of chemical and electrical signaling triggered by the autonomic nervous system, the involuntary part of the central nervous system. Involved in fear is the fight or flight response, which extends the emotion of fear to physical manifestations, such...
Role of the NMDA receptor in brain injury
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor in the brain. They have been found to play a role in the neurological damage that occurs after a stroke as well as irreversible neuron death after traumatic brain injury. However, these receptors are also important to...
Anatomy of the human elbow
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The elbow joint is created by three bones - one from the upper arm and two from the lower arm. Its construction allows it to act like a hinge or to rotate via the shoulder joint and crossover of the lower two bones. The elbow...
The relationship between sleep and obesity
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
In 2005, research showed that less sleep and higher body mass index (BMI) are related, confirming studies from the 1980s that correlated fewer hours of sleep a night with increased incidence of being overweight. How they were related, and whether one caused the other, was...

 

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