An overview of the five areas of the spine
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The human spine is made up of 33 bones called vertebrae. However, not all of these bones are the same. The vertebral column is divided into five regions based on the general structure of the spine – cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and the coccyx. However...
Anatomy: The structure and function of the thymus
By: Srikanth Radhakrishna
The thymus is a pyramid shaped primary lymphoid organ that is located beneath the breastbone, at the same level as the heart. It is the initial site for the development of T cell immunological function and the first of the lymphoid organs to be formed...
By: Colette Georgii
The overuse or misuse of antibiotics in farm animals can cause antibiotic resistance, which is a condition whereby the antibiotic used doesn't kill all the bacteria; or some bacteria have found a way to fight off the antibiotic, thus causing the bacteria to mutate and...
By: Hannah Russell
When bleeding occurs (internally or externally), the body relies on a chain reaction of events known as the clotting cascade to signal the appropriate key players to stop that bleeding. It is a very specific game of dominoes, with each protein signaling the next on...
By: Sarah E Knight
The term dyskinesia can be used to broadly describe any type of abnormal or involuntary movement. There are a range of different types of dyskinesia, classified according to what part of the body is affected. Different types of abnormal movements are displayed by the people...
Facts about blood vessels
By: Caroline Fynn
Blood vessels are tubular structures that comprise of arteries and arterioles, veins and venules, and capillaries and sinusoids. Arteries and arterioles carry blood away from the heart. Veins and venules transport blood towards the heart, and capillaries and sinusoids form a network between the arterioles...
Benefits of donating your body to science after death
By: Matt Wix
Death is the one thing that none of us can escape, and unfortunately for many it comes far too early. But it doesn't have to be all doom and gloom to your passing. Donating part or all of your body to science can have great...
How to estimate the concentration of protein in cerebrospinal fluid
By: Ingrid Monteiro
This article describes a detailed protocol to estimate the concentration of protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by the Pyrogallol dye binding method which was originally developed by Watanbe et.al. The reference to the original article is N Watanabe, S Kamei, A Ohkubo, M Yamanaka...
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
When it comes to infections, the body has its own mechanisms to fend them off. Some of these mechanisms such as the immune mediated resistance could be considered specific to a particular invasive pathogen. However, there are mechanisms that would act against most infective pathogens...
How barriers to infection and non-specific defensive responses protect the body
By: Jose Juan Gutierrez
The immune system provides protection against foreign invaders, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and pollen. There are two distinct forms of defenses against foreign invaders: innate (non-specific) immune system and adaptive (specific) immune system. While only vertebrates possess specific immune responses, nearly all organisms have...

 

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