Overview of sleep physiology
By: Tarek Musslimani
Sleep is defined as a state of unconsciousness in which it is possible to be aroused from this situation by a specific stimilus. There are two known types of sleep patterns. These are slow wave brain sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep...
How genetic regulation of the angiotensin receptor influences cardiovascular disease
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery disease (including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction), hypertension, and diabetes, to name a few. Research has found that some genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with these diseases. The RAS increases blood pressure and affects the constriction of the...
Function of heart ventricles
By: Erich Rosenberger M.D.
The human heart is one of the most fascinating organs in the body. It serves as a pump to move blood to every point in your body. It does this non-stop, without rest, every day your life. In fact, it starts beating when you are...
Genetic mutations that protect against HIV infection
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Various ethnic populations have been of interest because of an apparent resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among some individuals. Receptors on the T cells have been considered potential genetic factors in this resistance. HIV is a retrovirus spread by body fluids when they...
The valves in the human heart
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The four chambers of the human heart and three vessels connecting the heart with the pulmonary and systemic circulation have valves that prevent the backflow of blood. The heart valves are flaps of cardiac tissue held in place by connective tissue anchored in the fibrous...
Pharmacology: History of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
In 1987, the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, hit the market as an antidepressant. Other SSRIs include paroxetine, setraline, escitalopram, citalopram, and nefazodone, which are all also known by popular brand names – Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Lexapro, Celexa, and Serzone. More than 20...
The ONTARGET study of heart disease treatment
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The renin-angiotensin system's involvement in cardiovascular regulation makes it a key target for drugs fighting heart disease. The ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone in combination with Ramipril Gobal Endpoint Trial) study findings were published in the April 10, 2008 issue of the New England Journal of...
What is the digestive system and how does it work?
By: Pratik Vaidya
One day I was sitting next to Anthony at lunch. Suddenly, I was mysteriously shrunk to microscopic size! Now I am on a slice of pepperoni pizza and am about to be eaten! As soon as Anthony smells, sees, or even thinks of food his...
Robots performing surgical operations
By: Lauren Todd
The field of robotics has the potential to radically change how surgery is performed in the 21st century. What was deemed impossible pertaining to robotic surgeries, just twenty years ago, by scientists and the medical community is now common in 2010. The use of robots...
Assessing suitability for bariatric surgery
By: Katerina Nikolas
Those considering bariatric surgery hopefully understand that this isn’t a quick fix way to get slim but a serious and complicated operation to alleviate morbid obesity and the dangers it poses on co-morbid health disease. It isn’t a cosmetic procedure to suck the...

 

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