How the kidneys work
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The kidneys maintain the pH, ion, and fluid balance of the blood. Humans usually have two of these bean-shaped organs in the abdominal cavity. To achieve their function, the kidneys are made of basic filtering units, called nephrons, intertwined with a web of blood vessels...
Common fractures in the elderly
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
When a person ages, there are certain structural changes that takes place in many organs of the body. Bones are one of the organs which see a significant change in its structural integrity with the losing of mineralization, proteins, as well as the micro structure...
How Hashimoto's thyroiditis differs from Grave's disease
By: Nicole Evans M.D.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that may be associated with a goiter (thyroid lump) or in late stages of the disease with minimal residual thyroid tissue (atrophic thyroiditis). The autoimmune process of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis causes reduced thyroid function. The body reacts...
Genetics science projects for high school students
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
High school level genetics is usually a study of the basics of genetic theory and DNA structure. Though college level classes have the facilities and resources to conduct more advanced, and yet still somewhat basic, projects, high school resources would be more general, and require...
Surgery: Overview of intra-cranial bleeding
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
Intra-cranial bleeding refers to a bleeding or a hemorrhage that takes place inside the skull. Depending on the site of the bleeding, it can be either extra cerebral or else intra cerebral. Extra cerebral or extra-axial bleeding The bleeding or hemorrhage that is taking place...
Surgery: Overview of general anesthesia
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
Introduction: General anesthesia refers to the state in which the patient is placed on an induced state of total unconsciousness. The method is developed in order to provide safe environment for surgical procedures and thus improve the patients discomfort to a great extent. Although the...
Surgery: How does spinal anesthesia work?
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
The use of spinal anesthesia: Spinal anesthesia is a widely used method in anesthetizing patients who undergo surgeries below the level of the abdomen and some times even higher. It has been found to be a safe alternative to general anesthesia in the elderly, patients...
Surgery: Signs and symptoms of intracranial haemorrhage
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
Intracranial hemorrhage is the bleeding that tends to occur within the skull and the bleeding can occur either outside the brain matter or else within the brain. Being probably the most complex organ in the body, the brain can react in different presentations when it...
Complications of femoral head and neck fractures
By: Dr Pandula Siribaddana
What is the anatomy of the hip region? Femoral head and neck has a unique arrangement and orientation and thus any disruption can lead to deformity, reduced mobility and related symptoms. When considering the anatomical formation, the relatively thin neck of the femur will link...
Structure and function of the autonomic nervous system
By: Tarek Musslimani
The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts. These are: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal cord at the levels T1 to L3 where T stands for the thoracic region of the spinal...

 

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