Featured Articles

Hormones affected by insulin resistance
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body’s insulin receptors are not as receptive to the hormone insulin, causing the pancreas to produce more insulin in order for the body to appropriately convert blood glucose to energy. The condition is thought to be...
Vitelliform macular dystrophy (Best disease): Causes, symptoms and treatment
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Best disease is a genetic disorder known more formally as early onset vitelliform macular dystrophy. It is a rare autosomal dominant disorder first described in 1905 by a German ophthalmologist, Dr. Franz Best. Vitelliform means “egg-like,” which describes the yolk-like appearance of the...
Causes of hepatic encephalopathy
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Encephalopathy is a generic medical term for diseases and disorders that alter the function or structure of the brain. Hepatic means liver, so hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of the brain due to problems with the liver. The liver plays an important role in the...
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): Diagnosis and treatment
By: William Menna
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, commonly known as LAM, is a very rare and serious lung disease. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis begins with shortness of breath during exercise and progresses to the point where breathing becomes difficult throughout the day. LAM mostly affects women, though men can also develop the condition. Diagnosing...
Causes of endophthalmitis
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Endophthalmitis is an inflammatory condition of the eye, specifically the intraocular cavities - inside the eye is the aqueous humor between the cornea and lens, and the vitreous humor between the lens and retina. The inflammation can be either infectious or non-infectious, though the most...
How vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) antagonists treat macular degeneration
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Macular degeneration is a form of age-related blindness that develops over time. One cause of the blindness is neovascularization (i.e. new blood vessel growth) of the eye. In 1997, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was found to be over-expressed in patients with wet macular...
The early stages of heart disease
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Heart disease consists of a number of conditions that affect the heart, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and hypertension. The early stages of these heart diseases are different, but they have similar effects on the body if left untreated – heart failure.Early...
The effect of chronic dehydration on the kidneys
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The kidneys are responsible for controlling fluid balance in the body. During dehydration, which is a lack of water in the body, the kidneys act to retain more water in the blood. This change in function is directed by vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone...
Alopecia explained
By: Lavinia T
When people suffer from an autoimmune disorder, the chances of hair loss increase manifold. Alopecia is a type of condition in which the person loses excessive hair because the immune system starts attacking the hair follicles. Hair follicles are the points on the scalp from...
Precautions to minimize risk of organ rejection
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
Donor organ rejection remains one of the main obstacles to successful organ transplantation. According to Science Magazine, approximately 40 percent of all transplant patients experience at least one episode of acute rejection. Immune suppression and lifetime monitoring act to minimize organ rejection after transplantation, and...


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