Factors that raise heart rate
By: Kyriakos Anastasiadis
Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per minute (BPM). A normal heart rate varies between people, depending upon age, gender, activity levels, and their health status. It is universally accepted that a healthy, adult heart should beat 60-100 times per minute while resting. As...
The human sense of smell
By: Jacquie Schmall
Of all our senses, the olfactory sense, or sense of smell, is the most intimately connected with the brain. Our sense of smell provides us with critical information about our surroundings. Although it may be tempting to consider masking an unwelcome smell with some commercial...
Estrogen biosynthesis in the human body
By: Kat Centeno
Hormones, in general, are chemical substances released by the glands that transmit messages to the different cells in the body. Thus, hormones can greatly affect each of the body's cells. Estrogen is widely known as the main female sex hormone. Although it exists in men...
Estrogen biosynthesis in the human body
By: Eileen Eva
Estrogen also œstrogens, Estrogens (AmE), or oestrogens (BE) is derived from Greek, estrus, and gen meaning sexual desire and generate respectively. It is responsible for several functions in the human body especially in females. In its natural form, estrogen occurs as estrone (E1) which...
Estradiol's role in the human body
By: Vilie Farah
Estradiol is a sexual hormone belonging to the group of estrogens. Estrogens themselves are classified in the group of steroid hormones – biologically active substances that form in the human body and that have one common predecessor – cholesterol.Estradiol’s concentration in the body...
Understanding human reflex mechanisms: Sneezing
By: Omar Salvador
Why do people sneeze? Is sneezing a sign that a person is ill? Why is it so difficult to stop a sneeze? To answer these questions, we first have to understand that sneezing is a means of keeping dust, dirt and other irritants out of...
Understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in thirst
By: Omar Salvador
Thirst is generally defined as a sensation of dryness in the mouth and throat associated with a desire for liquids. Yet many of us have very little knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms involved in thirst. Because if we do have a thorough understanding of what...
Types and levels of brain injury
By: Pauline Abreu
A brain injury can be caused by many different incidents. Depending on the severity of the trauma to the brain it could be fatal to a person. A blow to the head, penetration, or another situation that causes the brain to impact against the skull...
Types and levels of brain injury
By: Alicia M Prater PhD
The brain is injured when a force impacts the head. As explained by the Brain Injury Association of Utah (BIAU), when external force injures the brain it is referred to as traumatic brain injury, whereas acquired brain injury is when an internal event or force...
Types and levels of brain injury
By: Magda DH
Brain can be injured in several ways. One of the most important distinctions is between a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury as a traumatic injury will be usually acute and require immediate or a very prompt treatment. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually...

 

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