By: Michelle Greysen
The intricate development of a coral reef is both detailed and complex. The basic three formation stages of a reef development are the early forming Fringing reefs initiating close to the land, followed by the Barrier Reef forming a well defined zone separated from...
The impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs
By: James Johnson
Acidification of the ocean is deadly to coral reefs and the creatures that rely on them. It destroys the natural balance and structure of the chemistry of the coral reef by depleting the calcium compounds, reducing the oxygen levels and raising carbon dioxide content. How...
By: Michelle Greysen
A Fringing reef, named for the visual fringe around the shoreline, may be the closest look many who visit the tropics will get to a coral reef. This most common and first stage of reef formation grows best on the hard rocky surface along...
Permafrost explained
By: D. Vogt
Permafrost is a layer of soil or earth which is permanently below the freezing point. The geological definition does not require that water ice actually be present in order for a region to be defined as permafrost, though with some exceptions (like at bedrock layers)...
By: D. Vogt
An ichthyologist is a scientist who specializes in studying fish, including rays and sharks. There are currently about 30,000 known fish species, making this group larger in terms of total number of species than all birds, reptiles, and mammals put together. - About Ichthyology...
Why the ocean at the North Pole doesn't drip
By: D. Vogt
The Arctic Ocean does not drip downwards from the North Pole for the same reason that the Antarctic ocean does not pool downwards towards the South Pole: Earth's gravity pulls all surface objects down towards the core of the planet, not down from the northern...
What are metallic nodules on the sea-bottom?
By: D. Vogt
Since the 19th century, we have been aware that the sea-bottom is littered with layers of metallic nodules, also known as manganese nodules, which are generally small but extremely metal-rich rocks containing large quantities of valuable manganese and smaller amounts of iron, copper, zinc, cobalt...
Ocean dead zones explained
By: D. Vogt
Ocean dead zones are ocean regions where the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water has fallen so low that most or all marine life is incapable of surviving and has either died or fled to nearby, more oxygen-rich areas. There are currently several hundred...
Which is the widest waterfall and where can you find it?
By: D. Vogt
Waterfalls are among the most striking scenes one can find in nature: vast volumes of water plunging over a rocky abyss, producing clouds of vapour and a roar that can be heard for miles. For most people in North America, the famed Niagara Falls, lying...
What is an oceanographer?
By: D. Vogt
Oceanography is the science of the oceans, including marine life and ecology, sea waves and currents, sea-floor geology, and ocean chemistry. Oceanographers study a wide variety of issues within these general subject areas. - About Oceanography - Human societies have a long history of interactions...

 

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