Where is the ozone layer located and how is it depleted?
By: Lauren Okely
Although ozone is found dispersed throughout the atmosphere, it is mostly concentrated 13 to 30 km (9 to 18 miles) above earth's surface. This triatomic form of ozone protects the earth's surface from the ultraviolet rays emitted from the sun. Even a small decrease in...
Why do thunder and lightning so often go together?
By: Wayne Leon Learmond
It suddenly becomes very cold, dark and ominous. The birds that were singing happily a few moments before, now as one, fall silent. There is something in the air, a smell of sulphur. Suddenly in the distance, you see a streak of lightning, brilliant white...
By: Len Morse
Many travelers and those interested in geographical trivia have, at some point, wondered about the world’s smallest countries. Where are some of these places and exactly how small are they? Are they really worth visiting? Is there anything truly interesting about them? Read on...
By: Gloria Edmonson Nelson
There are many buildings and residences that need to be seismically retrofitted, especially those that were built prior to 1975 and are situated on earthquake faults. For example, certain locations such as Los Angeles, The San Francisco-Bay Area, Kansas, etc., that have had prior experiences...
An overview on earthquake aftershocks
By: Hai Shunxi
The television camera pans over a devastated cityscape, pausing on piles of rubble that were once houses, apartments, and office buildings. Dazed and dusty survivors pick through the remnants of their lives seeking keepsakes, valuables, or simply food and water. People avoid even those buildings...
By: Sarah Fonseca
Excessive springtime rainfall is a phenomenon virtually exclusive to the United States. Many other areas on both hemispheres including parts of Canada to the Philippines, to name a few, the rainy season occur in one of the other three seasons, and is typically followed by...
By: Janet Grischy
Spirogyra is a free-floating filamentous alga, of the order Zygnematales. It grows in fresh eutrophic water, water rich in nutrients. In high summer, it’s often seen tangled together in large slimy bright green masses that may be interspersed with bubbles of oxygen. More than...
Learning about the natural world of a pond
By: Shannon Farlouis
There are three million farm ponds in the United States. They are mainly constucted for cattle watering, irrigation, or erosion control. Some ponds are created by beavers and floods. Some ponds are created by bulldozing or blasting a basin. Most shallow ponds contain warm water...
What is the moment magnitude scale?
By: Hai Shunxi
Whenever there is a notable earthquake, reporters inform us that it had "an estimated magnitude of” a number around seven or eight. Assigning magnitude numbers to earthquakes is a way to compare them to each other: eights are “massive”; sixes “major”; fours are...
By: Janet Grischy
Color in a diamond is a glittering imperfection. Diamonds are carbon, locked tightly into a lattice structure, a three dimensional grid, that makes them the hardest natural substance. Diamonds are crushed into shape deep underground, in inconceivable conditions of temperature and pressure that make them...

 

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