What is the moment magnitude scale?
By: Carole Somerville
Magnitude is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake; seismologists use a Magnitude scale to express the energy released by the quake. Every earthquake has a unique amount of energy and the magnitude values given by different seismological observatories can sometimes...
By: Gloria Edmonson Nelson
There are many buildings and residences that need to be seismically retrofitted, especially those that were built prior to 1975 and are situated on earthquake faults. For example, certain locations such as Los Angeles, The San Francisco-Bay Area, Kansas, etc., that have had prior experiences...
An overview on earthquake aftershocks
By: Hai Shunxi
The television camera pans over a devastated cityscape, pausing on piles of rubble that were once houses, apartments, and office buildings. Dazed and dusty survivors pick through the remnants of their lives seeking keepsakes, valuables, or simply food and water. People avoid even those buildings...
What is the moment magnitude scale?
By: Hai Shunxi
Whenever there is a notable earthquake, reporters inform us that it had "an estimated magnitude of” a number around seven or eight. Assigning magnitude numbers to earthquakes is a way to compare them to each other: eights are “massive”; sixes “major”; fours are...
By: Janet Grischy
Color in a diamond is a glittering imperfection. Diamonds are carbon, locked tightly into a lattice structure, a three dimensional grid, that makes them the hardest natural substance. Diamonds are crushed into shape deep underground, in inconceivable conditions of temperature and pressure that make them...
What are stratovolcanoes?
By: W. H. Lindgren
Stratovolcanoes are some of the most notable, visible, famous geographic forms in the World. In the United States, such mountains as Rainier and St. Helens, Shasta, Hood, Redoubt, Kilauea and Maui are widely known through photographs. Worldwide, Mt. Fuji, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Etna, Mt. Ararat...
By: Gloria Edmonson Nelson
The moment magnitude scale (MMS) was created in 1979 as a means of measuring medium to large earthquakes because of problems and inability to give reliable results (when applied to earthquakes of magnitudes of 7and above) using the Richter Scale, which was developed by Charles...
By: Hai Shunxi
Before the first Earth Day or recycle bin, Mother Nature already had a recycling program in place. Every drop of water, every molecule of air have been endlessly recycled since day one. Most of us don’t know, though, that she also recycles the solid...
How the Earth's surface is reshaped over time
By: Guy Allen
ROCK CYCLE The rock cycle is defined as the set of processes that create, change, and reform the rocks of the earth. Rocks are initially formed from molten material referred to as magma, which lies deep in the earth's crust. As this material moves closer...
An overview on earthquake aftershocks
By: Lenna Gonya
Aftershocks are the smaller, but sometimes just as damaging, earthquakes that occur after the initial shock. They can continue for days, or sometimes for years, but they normally get smaller and less intense with time.In some cases, the aftershock is actually stronger than the...

 

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