Anatomy And Physiology

Anatomy Physiology



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We will discuss in this short article the male and female reproductive system shortly. Firstly, we will discuss the male reproductive system and then the female reproductive system. The male reproductive system consists of the Testis and epididymis, in addition to the important gland of the prostate.

The testis of the mature individual is composed of semineferous canals which are responsible for spermatogenesis or the process by which stem cells differentiate into spermatozoa. The testis include in addition to the semineferous tubules a type of cells that is called the leydig cells. This type of cells is responsible for the secretion of the male sex hormone testosterone.

The testis of the adult male has two important functions. These are the formation of spermatozoa or the male sex cells which contain the genetic information of the male character. The other function that the testis has is the secretion of testosterone which is responsible for the development of the male secondary sex characteristics such as hair growth.

Next we will discuss the prostate gland which is part of the male reproductive system. This gland encircles the upper part of the urethra. Therefore in prostatitis or enlarged prostate gland, the passage of urine from the bladder to the urethra is blocked, which need treatment by relaxation of the muscles of that encircles the prostate. Thus allowing the urine to pass.

The prostate secretes normally seminal fluid which is rich in acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen. These two hormones are markers for prostate cancer. In this condition secretion of these two hormones is enhanced and its excess in blood is indicative of prostate cancer.

Next we discuss briefly the female reproductive system. The female reproductive system is composed of two parts. These are the internal female reproductive organs and the external female reproductive organs. The internal organs include the the ovaries and the uterine in addition to the vagina. The external reproductive organs include the openning of the vagina and urethral openning.

The ovaries have two main functions. These are the formation of the female sex cells or gametes, in addition to the production of important hormones. The secretion of hormones is divided into two parts. One is the secretion of estrogen which enhances the development of internal and external sex organs in females. Estrogen has also an effect on the female breast and thus stimulates its development.

The other hormone that is secreted by the ovaries is called progesterone, in which its secretion helps in the process of initiation of pregnancy. Progesterone helps also in the ejection of milk from the breast of the female.

Next we will discuss randomly few disoders of the male and female reproductive systems. A common disorder in the male reproductive system is prostatitis which is caused often by bacteria such as E. coli. In addition prostatitis often occur as a result of infectious complications of the urinary tract. Chronic prostatitis on the other hand, can occur in case of enlarged prostate gland due to hyperplasia. This condition has a clinical manifestation of blockage of the passage of urine from the bladder to the urethra.

A common disorder of the female reproductive system is called polycystic ovarian syndrome. This condition is manifested clinically as enlarged ovaries which in turn secrete excessive amount of androgens. These androgens give the female secondary sex characteristics typical for males such as hair growth. In addition this condition causes infertility in women. An additional symtom to this condition is bleeding from the uterine.

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