Anatomy And Physiology

Anatomy Physiology



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Our bodies are predestined to experience a sequence of significant changes and processes such as the ability to keep up the internal stability of the body by regulating its physiological processes regardless of the difference in the external state of the body. For instance: when there is a surplus or excess glucose in the blood, insulin is released from the pancreas to lesser the glucose level in the blood.

The endocrine system performs its work in a resultant way to uphold the homeostatic state of which the internal system is kept steady and stable within the body.

Endocrinology is responsible for all these functions; it concentrates on the study of endocrine system and deals with all of its illnesses. Endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones that are circulated to all parts of the body and these glands are called endocrine glands. Endocrinology as a branch of medicine has its own specialist – a physician who specializes and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to endocrine system, these specialists are called Endocrinologists. They are qualified and skilled for diagnosis and treatment of hormone disorders.

The endocrine glands are liable for the creation and secretion of hormones – chemical substances that are circulated throughout the body and in the blood, where they act on various organs and tissues in the body.  Endocrine glands are also called ductless glands because they have no duct system, where the hormones can pass through; in its place, the hormones are secreted directly into the blood.

The endocrine glands are found in different part of the body, they are located at different organs where they secrete hormones that travel in the blood and circulate round the body. These endocrine glands are; parathyroid, thyroid, pancreas, testes, adrenal, ovaries, hypothalamus, and pituitary glands.

There are diseases associated with endocrine gland disorders, these diseases occurs when there is an obstruction ( slow down or hindrance) with the secretion of hormones into the blood or when there is a malfunctioning ( over-activity and under-activity) in the secretion of hormones. Examples of such diseases are:

* Diabetes – a disease that occurs when there is no secretion of insulin or when the body can not control the high level of glucose or sugar in the blood.

 * Goiter – a disease that is caused by malfunctioning (inactivity or hyperactivity) of the thyroid gland resulting to the swelling in the neck.

 * Cretinism & Myxoedema are growth disorders, they are diseases caused by deficiency of  a growth hormone called thyroxine at birth ( cretinism) or later in life (myxoedema)  

* Cushing’s syndrome & Addison’s disease are respectively caused by hyperactivity and low or inactivity of the adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids hormones which promote carbohydrate and protein metabolism in the body.  

* Other diseases include cancers, hypertension, lipid disorders, thyrotoxicosis, hypoglycemia, infertility, obesity, congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, menopause, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, osteoporosis.   

These diseases involve endocrinology to be required in their diagnosis and treatment even though a few of them may not be caused by endocrine gland disorders unswervingly. 

The identification, analysis and findings of endocrine glands illness or disorders entail thorough laboratory examination where the activity of a gland can be discovered, both for over-activity or under-activity of the hormone production; and also conducting a blood test to examine the blood activities in the body.

There are various treatments for various endocrine system diseases; it will be advisable to contact a physician to examine you before contacting an endocrinologist if there are any signs or symptoms of endocrine system disorders. 

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