Anatomy And Physiology

Anatomy Physiology



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Humans and chimpanzees both come from the family of hominids (members of the taxonomic family known in biology as Hominidae) Hominids are considered the most intelligent biological family on earth.

Chimpanzees are humans closet relatives. When it comes to comparing DNA sequences of individual genes, the human and chimp versions are almost identical in sequence. The human genome (completed in 2003) and chimpanzee genome (completed in 2005) are 98% identical. It stands to reason that there will be many anatomical similarities between humans and chimpanzees.

Humans and chimpanzees are sexually dimorphic, meaning males are 5 – 10 % larger with more developed muscles of the upper body.  Both have bilateral symmetry, which is where the right half of the body is a mirror image of the left half. Both have a central nervous system, which consists of a brain, a spinal cord, and nerves. A chimp skeleton and a human skeleton match bone for bone.  Humans and Chimpanzees have the same muscles, but the arm muscles of chimps exhibit greater strength which allows chimps to swing from trees with ease. Humans have longer and stronger muscles and tendons which allow humans to walk upright, which means they are bipedal. Chimps can be bipedal for short distances, however, they are usual quadrupedal, which means they ambulate with both their arms and legs.

Humans and Chimps have the same organs. If the organs are so similar why aren’t chimpanzee organs used for transplants in humans? Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of cells, tissues and organs from animals to humans. Pig skin and pig heart valves are used in humans in transplantations. Chimpanzees are not used in transplantations because chimps are too expensive, they grow too slowly, and are an endangered species. Chimps are so alike humans that the risks of transplanting an infectious virus are too high.

Chimps and humans both have 32 teeth, and are omnivorous. However, the canine teeth of the chimp are much larger than the canine teeth of humans.

Both humans and chimps have a hyoid bone, which is the only bone in both species that does not articulate with another bone. It is found in the neck.

Humans and chimpanzees have very similar vertebral columns. Humans have 7 cervical (neck) vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae (upper back), 5 lumbar vertebrae (lower back) and 3-5 sacral vertebrae (tailbone). Chimps have 7 cervical vertebrae, 13 thoracic vertebrae, 4 lumbar vertebrae, and 4 sacral vertebrae.

In both chimps and human, rib cages are broad, and extend back past the vertebrae. Both rib cages are shallow from front to back. Humans have 12 pairs of ribs; chimps have 13 Pairs of ribs. Both have scapula, and should joints that face out to the side which gives us shoulder joints that are mobile. This allows for both species to swing their arms. The angle of the humorous and other joints in the forearm is the same in both humans and chimps.

The hands of humans and chimps are the same. There ar7 carpal bones (wrist bones), 5 metacarpal bones (hand bones), 4 fingers and an opposable thumb. Opposable thumbs allow for precision grips. Chimp thumb is much shorter. Both chimps and humans have fingerprints.

Humans and chimps both have femurs (thigh bones), and both have fibulas and tibia, which are the bones in the legs. Femurs are longer in humans and the fibula and tibia are smaller and shorter in chimpanzees.

Human and chimp feet have the same bones. In chimps, the toes are longer and the hallux (big toe) is opposable, which allows the chimp foot to act as a hand.

Humans and Chimpanzees have very similar genomes and sequencing of genes and share many anatomical features. Chimps are the closest relatives of humans. The evolutionary split was about 5 million years ago. Bone for bone, muscle of muscle, organ for organ, humans and chimpanzees are 100% identical. This is why human anatomy and the chimpanzee anatomy are nearly identical.

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