Similarities and differences, whether anatomical, cytological or genetic, depend on the evolutionary history of organisms. Organisms that are more closely related to us i.e. belong to the same genus or family, have a more similar genetic composition and a common ancestor in their evolutionary history as recently as five million to seven million years ago. Humans and Chimpanzees are two such organisms that have the same taxonomic hierarchy till subfamily.
Humans and Chimpanzees belong to the same subfamily “Homoninae,” but they are members of different genera and species. Hence, they have different scientific names. Comparisons in terms of protein sequences and allele differences have shown that Humans and Chimpanzees have 98.5% identical DNA sequencing. Recent studies have also shown that that the amount of varying DNA, DNA or any of it’s nucleotides being lost or gained, in humans and chimpanzees is 6.7%. An average chimpanzee has 48 chromosomes, two more than humans as it is believed that two chromosomal pairs of DNA in an earlier human ancestor fused together into a single pair. Due to these reasons the closest relative of humans is the Chimpanzee and they share many similar anatomical features and habits, such as the tendency of both humans and chimpanzees to socialize. They both also have similar anatomical characteristics that enable them to walk upright and stand bipedally.
Both organisms have high intellectual level, although that of Chimpanzees is comparatively less than humans. In addition to this, humans and Chimpanzees can form tools with the help of resources from the environment and can use these tools correctly. However, humans can form better tools due to the fact that they have longer thumbs which make their grip stronger. Also, both animals experience sexual pleasure. Chimpanzees use facial expressions, hand signals, and vocalizations to communicate among themselves as humans do, but humans have a complex vocal cord, thus they prefer to communicate with various vocalizations. However, chimpanzees communicate efficiently with facial expressions and gestures such as waving, patting, etc. Humans and Chimpanzees have complex digestive, reproductive, and immune systems.
Although humans and chimpanzees both have an omnivorous diet, the digestive system of humans is more suited to digest meat while the digestive system of chimpanzees is designed to digest fruits. Both humans and Chimpanzees have five fingers and the structure of these digits is somewhat similar. However, the fingers of humans are straight, whereas that of Chimpanzees are curved.