This simple equation is the most profound scientific statement about the universe we live in that you will ever learn. With it Einstein takes all existence and reduces it to one thing, energy-mass which composes all matter. Energy-mass is transmutable at a ratio defined by the speed or velocity of light, which is an absolute of our reference frame, multiplied by itself. This means that one gram of mass contains about 90 trillion grams of energy, quite a ratio. Nuclear weapons are a disturbing proof that this ratio is true, as are the fusion reactions that power our local star, the sun. Everything tangible that exists including galaxies, planets, you and me, which are made of cells, made of molecules, made of elements, made of atoms, is made of energy-mass. Everything made of one transmutable substance.
Definition of Charge
Fundamental charged particles come in two types, negatively charged like the electron or positively charged like the proton and the positron, the electrons anti-matter counterpart. If both are made of energy-mass, it would be logical to assume that some process occurs to form negative particles and some variation of that process occurs to form positive particles, at least in the cause and effect universe we inhabit.
The Author assumes this to be true and assumes directionality of polarity. Energy-mass changing in a direction toward mass, as mediated by C2 will have a positive polarity and energy-mass changing in a direction toward energy will have a negative charge. If viewed as a spectrum with mass at one end and energy at the other, charged particles, like the electron and positron are seen appearing at various stable positions in between. When electrons and positrons meet they annihilate each other in a violent release of energy. This would be expected because they epitomize each others direction of change on the energy-mass spectrum. It is observed in nature that opposite charges attract, like or same charges repel. The negatively charged electron should be attracted to and annihilate with the positively charged proton, as it does it's positively charged opposite the positron, but it doesn't. Under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure and velocity when an electron encounters a proton it changes that proton to a slightly more massive, charge-less neutron. The nuclei of all atoms, in every element larger than hydrogen, need neutrons to exist. There are no elements from helium on up that don't have neutrons binding the protons of their nuclei together. If a free neutron remains unbound from a proton or nucleus it will undergo, in about 40 minutes, what is called, beta-decay and change back into a positively charged proton by emitting an electron and a mass-less energy particle called a neutrino. Thus, positively charged protons and non-charged neutrons are interchangeable by means of an electron and a little extra energy.
Experimental evidence has shown that photons and electrons appear to have the dual properties of acting as a wave and also as a particle depending upon what is being observed and measured. The author has often wondered why? A wavy space-time background would make any energy packet (quanta) or charged particles, traveling linearly along it, appear as a wave, like a small boat negotiating a large wavy sea. This solution leads to the next question, why is space-time distorted, wavy? Back in 1899 Max Planck proposed that the atom was an "ideal oscillator". An oscillator is something that flips back and forth, and or, on and off repetitively. This hypothesis would certainly help to answer the wave particle duality of the photon, nicely. Unfortunately, Planck's "ideal oscillator" atom model, proved to be wrong. When tested it failed and was abandoned. About ten years later Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus of the atom, which is exquisitely tiny and composed of positively charged particles called protons. In 1932, the other uncharged nuclear component, the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick, a former student of Rutherford's. By employing the neutron, all the weights, energies and masses of the elements, which are made of atoms, added up to what was being measured.
The Invisible Realm
The atom is very, very, very small, but is huge relative to its nucleus. More than a million atoms end to end would be needed to span the width of a human hair and the nucleus is only 1/10,000th the size of the atom The tiny centrally contained nucleus is composed of positively charged protons and slightly more massive, uncharged neutrons. Surrounding this minuscule, net positively charged, nucleus are the even tinier, negatively charged, electrons in valence energy orbits. If the electron orbiting the nucleus is likened to the planets orbiting the sun, the ratio of the atomic level to that of the solar system would put even the closest orbiting electron to the nucleus, well out beyond the orbit of Pluto.
There's a lot of empty space down in the realm of the atom. The nucleons, as small as they are, are about 1800 times as massive, as the electrons that are attracted to and orbit them, because opposite charges attract. These relatively massive nucleons are believed to be composed of smaller indivisible basic component particles, like the tiny electron and its anti-matter positively charged opposite, the positron. All other particles, like quarks, are hypothetical.
Data, from recent experimentation suggests that the positive proton particles of the nucleus are the "ideal oscillators" that Max Planck sought, so long ago. The proton is an internally driven spherical oscillator, an electro-dynamic perpetual motion machine. It is driven by the conversion of charge energy into mass and back again by the function M=E/C2 which is a conversion of E=MC2, Einstein's energy-mass equation. The mass particle is created by the charge dynamics of four positive particles oscillating within the proton sphere.
If you're curious about the details of how the oscillating proton model works, which are too lengthy to go into now, It's published here at http://www.helium.com/items/1273960-how-atoms-work . It's a "Classical" hypothesis, a cause and effect description of the electro-dynamic workings of four positively charged oscillating particles contained within the proton sphere and why they keep oscillating. It is how someone educated in electronics, rather than mathematics, would interpret vital, disregarded data.
Electronics works; It is at the apex of our modern technological civilization. You wouldn't be reading these words on your monitor screen if the laws of electronics and electrodynamics didn't work and weren't well understood and verified, The principles are all sound and can be confirmed by Hamiltonian mathematics. The irony of the quantum world is that quantization may be caused by a classical electro-dynamic mechanical system within all the nucleons of all the matter in existence, generating the basic pulses that quantize space-time at the nuclear level.
Proton Electrodynamics and Space-time
The electronic principles of inductance and capacitance are real. The proton shell acts like a capacitor, blinking on and off with two differing positive charge configurations. These basic oscillations, pulses, of all protons, resonate throughout the very fabric of space-time, distorting it. This can nicely explain the phenomena of the wave-particle, quantum foam and the force of gravity. If you're curious about gravity, see http://www.helium.com/items/1263059-gravitational-propulsion. The oscillation frequency should be on the order of the radius of the proton, which is so very, very small, making the frequency very high. The rapidly oscillating on-off flashing nature of the proton also explains why the negatively charged electron doesn't crash into and annihilate the positive proton, as it does its anti-matter opposite, the positively charged positron, but orbits it. Now there is a run on sentence.
Certain sections of this article are taken or modified from other articles I have published.