Psychology

Abnormal Psychology Behavior Freud Theories Biological Dsm Apascientific



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Classifying certain terms by nothing more than logical experience, like defining the dark like there is no light. Nevertheless, the vaguer the cultural affirms or denies being abnormal, the more of a requirement of an explanation. A brief, evident expression is better than rather a simply explanation of the state of the opposing lack of normal behavior. The description for the five abnormal criteria is as follows. First, seek help, next, dangerous, or irrational behavior. Of course, deviance would have to be on the list, look for emotional distress, and finally a significant amount or impairment (Damour & Hansell, 2008). The first three indicators are the best discover abnormalities, which may be from nature.

The final two are useful for a practical scientific point of view. Therefore, making the final two the one’s social science preferred as a diagnostic tools of psychopathology present day. Although emotionally a person can be under stress and a considerable amount of impairment can happen outside the area of psychopathology, seldom will this happen with the lack of any emotional distress or harm. The definition is useful from a clinical perspective, yet not always valid in all situations. Today abnormal psychology accounts for the origin of psychopathology and the advancement of abnormal psychology. Psychosocial, biological, medical, and sociocultural, these are the five theoretical models of psychology.

Origins of Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal psychology has existed for a little more than 100 years. The explanation is that abnormal behavior goes back even beyond Biblical history (Damour & Hansell, 2008). The earliest rationalization for mental illness was the spiritual approach, and believers would speculate, over how the spiritual world that affected the physical, mental, and observable world. Demonstrations often held in the real world for believers of the idea that psychopathology. This created fear and filled the practice that another person was boring holes into a living individual’s skull to release evil spirits. During this period and considered a “medical procedure” and the sciences believe it to have taken place as early as 3000 B.C. in Peru and Bolivia, the pre-Hispanic Aztec and Incan civilizations (Shieff, Smith & Wadley, 1997), in 460 B.C.,

Hippocrates first anticipated a purely biological explanation of human abnormal behavior. His belief that a difference in four fluids in the human body were not in sync with one another, blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile that he called humors. Hippocrates believed when the fluids were out of balance this was the cause of mental illness. Over time, science has found his observations wrong. Nonetheless, the scientific reasoning this reasoning was obviously unsound it was still a scientific evolution that helped to clarify abnormal behavior. Because of Hippocrates, the early foundations of scientific disciplines of psychopathology began and the ideas that started the learning passageway to understanding abnormal behavior.

Development of Abnormal Psychology and Science

The ancient Greeks were the first to diagnose and prescribe a course of treatment for hysteria, called conversion disorder. The symptoms of hysteria include paralysis, confusion, various pains and ailments, and loss of sensation. These symptoms usually follow neurological damage, but in the case of hysteria, no neurological damage in any subjects that would account for the physical symptoms. Panic struck in most females, and the affected parts of the body changed over time, the Greek physicians hypothesized that the uterus moved around the body, thereby causing the blockage of fluids. Not until 1896, in Vienna was it that Sigmund Freud first proposed a systematic theory of psycho-dynamics that might account for the psychological components of hysteria (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

History of psychology, (2010) is what founded most of the case studies. Freud put forth the idea that conflicts between conscious and subconscious processes explained the odd physical symptoms usually associated with hysteria. Although many claims made by the psycho-dynamic point of view scientifically and objectively, evidence is lacking. Freud continued to offer the field of abnormal psychology as its first broad theory of psychopathology. Then in 1879, the first psychological laboratory made possible by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzip Germany. This began the scientific clarification of many psychological abnormal medical conditions. The American Psychological Associate (APA) was the brainchild of G. Stanley Hall in 1952 released the first diagnostic manual for mental disorders, (DSM-I), (Anthony & Goldstein, 1988).

The DSM specifically lists different diagnostic in separate categories of mental disorders, which helps doctors, and other researchers to help find the proper diagnosis of mental illnesses. At last, the first psychology clinic that opened to patients was at the University of Pennsylvania in 1892, thanks to Lightner Witmer. At this point, comprehensive theories of psychopathology was the first clinical psychological laboratories and of its kind. The opening of the APA enabled the first diagnostic to be published (manually). Abnormal psychology advanced from a vague research of spirituality into the more concrete concerns of scientific discovery.

Six Models of Psychology

Erik Erikson was the first psychologist to advocate a theory of psychosocial development to account for psychological dysfunction (Studer, 2006). Erikson posited that eight tasks constitute the pivotal points that establish either healthy development or dysfunctional development: trust, independence, enterprise, industry, individuality, intimacy, productivity, and integrity. Because Erikson believed that these stages are epigenetic, the completion of each stage must take place before a person can progress to the next stage. It is at this point that abnormal psychology becomes an issue. If any of the stages are not resolved effectively, the option of being a stage cannot legitimate as a mental illness. In addition, the fourth axis of the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual is devoted to the psychosocial and environmental problems that contribute to mental illness. The areas of concern are the primary social structure that society has set for the care of its citizens. The psychosocial model of psychology applies to abnormal psychology through the fourth axis of the DSM-IV and Erickson’s path to psychosocial development.

Biological, Medical, Model

The biological and medical model is alarming because of the bio-chemical execution found that the brain was capable, and the physiological actions of the human body, and understanding how it all relates to psychology. This includes physical injury, genetic, disease, hormone, petrochemical, disturbances, and hormone imbalances. Both the biological and medical models are entirely a physical mechanism of the human psychology. As a result, many attempts to explain abnormal psychology in purely material a term that has helped people understand the meaning. However, even though this models solely is with the physical-world, social considerations can have implications on a purely biological level. For instance, Masterpasqua (2009) found that disorders like anxiety compare very high with certain patterns of DNA and very responsive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal partnership that are both are influential to the social roles of the caregiver of a young child and infant. The biological and medical model rejects the rationalization of abnormal behavior, after the social factors are such a large force on the physical unsuitable behavior.

Sociocultural Model

The sociocultural model cultural context defines the conditions, which abnormal behavior is understood “…focuses on the influence of large social and cultural forces on individual functioning” (Damourv & Hansell, 2008, p. 63). For instance, sociocultural psychologists have stressed the responsibility of discrimination, poverty, and not working will play a valuable role in criminal behavior from the beginning. Other psychologists suggest that a mental disorder is simply manufactured or made-up by people in society so he or she will feel as though they fit into traditional values. Furthermore, the sociocultural model asserts that learning based on the social and cultural pressures, stresses, and ideals of that culture or society. In American society today to be the caregiver of an elderly parent are often thought of as a burden in many and ethnic societies, and a blessing in others (Aziz, Bellack & Rosenfarb, 2006).

Conclusion

Abnormal psychology has put the foundation of the mental and magical or spiritual explanations of the ill-advised biological reasoning Hippocrates. In Viennese in 1896, Sigmund Freud became fascinated with people particularly the elderly, and the absurdity of hysteria, which for a time was an all-inclusive explanation of psychopathology. This proposed conflict linking the conscious and unconscious minds so that eventually all the sciences biological, medical and social mental illnesses would finally connect and be able to help people who had not been able to receive help in the past. Psychological laboratories and clinics are the groups of people who formed the APA, books, and journals of the DSM. Sigmund Freud’s theories were a large influence of abnormal scientific regulations. Additionally, the psychosocial model helps to explain inability to make up your mind and the stage of development, according to Erikson. Each model of the biological and medical science covers the physical actions that recount to and cause psychopathology. Finally, the cultural background and social forces influence the sociocultural of abnormal behavior.

 References

Anthony, R.N., Goldstein, W.N., (1988). The diagnosis of depression and the DSMs. American Journal of

 Psychotherapy, 42(2), 180-196. From Medline Database.

Aziz, N., Bellack, A. S., & Rosenfarb, I. S., (2006). A sociocultural stress, appraisal, and coping model of subjective burden and family

attitudes toward patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), (pp.157-165). From, PSYCARTICLES Database.

Damour, L. & Hansell, J., (2008). Abnormal psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. History of psychology:

 Contemporary foundations    

(2010). Learner.org. from

Discovering Psychology

        http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/history/history_nonflash.html

Masterpasqua, F., (2009). Psychology and epigenetics. Review of General Psychology, 13(3),

        (pp 194-201). From EBSCOHost.

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