According to Einstein, "energy is equal to the mass of an object multiplied by the speed of light squared". The speed of light is defined as the distance light travels in a specific amount of time. Time, as we know, is a human invention to help understand the orbital travel of earth about the sun and the speed of earths rotation about its axis. How then can the speed of light be dependent on an amount of time typical to our planet only? Isn't the speed of light a universal velocity?
Light is proved to be affected by gravity. As star light travels past the sun, it has been found to be deflected from its original path. It has not been determined whether this deflection increases or decreases the speed of starlight. If gravity does affect the speed of light if only by deflecting its path, and that deflection causes a change in its velocity, then the speed of light is not constant. Its speed would be changed by every source of gravity it passed. Light passing a black hole with its tremendously large gravity, should also be deflected and not absorbed as is currently believed. Would the deflection caused by such an extreme gravity change its velocity? Would the velocity be increased or decreased? These questions must be answered before accepting the speed of light as a constant.
There seems to be a reaction between the gravity in matter and the particles of light. Since all particles may have an anti particle such as an electrons and positrons are anti particles, then it is possible that the gravitons of gravity and the photons of light are anti particles. One having a force of attraction and the other a force of repulsion. If photons are particles that repulse matter, they cannot react to or be absorbed by matter. They are either held at bay or repelled by matter. It is also possible that the larger the mass of matter the greater the amount of repulsion. If this is true, then a black hole would deviate photons to such an extent that they would be invisible to the observer.
Gravity is a very weak force. If photons are the anti particles of gravitons, they also represent a very weak force. It is also possible that both photons and gravitons are affected by mass. Therefore, a very large mass would cause a greater amount of gravity and the same mass would cause a corresponding amount of anti gravity in its reaction to photons. Photons would then be deflected by extremely large mass.
It stands to reason that there will be those who read this article and find fault in the thinking behind it. For those individuals, a thought about light or photon sails may be in order. A light sail is a huge membrane that serves as a mirror to reflect light. The reflected light from the membrane will cause it to move in a direction opposite to the source of light. Any mass attached to the membrane will of course be towed along its path. Most thinking about these sails refer to the sun as the source of light. It is possible, however, that a craft may us its own source of light. The source would simply shine its light on the membrane mirror. With the advent of lasers and masers, it cannot be beyond reason that the force created by the light might be enhanced. This would be particularly possible if the enhancement would be light minus heat. Since light is touted to be the provider of the fastest known speed, a continuous light source may slowly accelerate a craft to the speed of light and beyond if enhancement is possible.
There is another argument that may be considered. If gravity attracted light, we would be blinded by glare whenever we opened an orange or an apple. Watermelons being much greater in mass would be blinding the moment a knife cut to its center. Tunnels and mines would be fluorescent with accumulated light whenever they were dug. Since none of these incidents occur, it stand to reason to say that gravity throughs off light from the surface of an object. The more massive an object the greater ammount of light that would be thrown off. Hence, a black hole being extremely massive would throw off light before it even approached its "surface".